Chemical fertilizers and pesticides reduce green and promote development
December 21, the Ministry of Agriculture held a fertilizer and pesticide utilization news briefing. Zeng Yande, director of the Crops Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, said that according to estimates, the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers for the three major grain crops such as rice, corn and wheat in 2017 was 37.8%, an increase of 2.6 percentage points from 2015; the pesticide utilization rate was 38.8% Increase by 2.2 percentage points. At present, the use of pesticides has been a negative growth for three consecutive years, the use of chemical fertilizers have achieved zero growth, three years ahead of schedule to achieve zero emissions of chemical fertilizers and pesticides by 2020 goal.
The just-concluded meeting of the Central Economic Work proposed that structural reforms in the supply side of agriculture should be promoted and quality agriculture and green farming should be adhered to. According to reports, fertilizer, pesticide utilization has brought significant economic and ecological benefits: First, to achieve cost-effective. It is estimated that fertilizer utilization increased by 2.6 percentage points, equivalent to reducing the amount of 1.3 million tons of urea (in-kind), reduce production inputs about 2.6 billion. The utilization rate of pesticides increased by 2.2 percentage points, equivalent to a reduction of 30,000 tons of pesticide use (in-kind) and a reduction of production input of about 1.2 billion yuan. The second is to achieve quality and efficiency gains. In addition to reducing the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the quality of crops has been enhanced. In particular, green prevention and control technologies such as ecological control, biological control and physical control have been adopted to reduce pesticide residues, improve the environment in which agricultural products are produced, and ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products. Third, Efficiency. Fertilizer utilization increased by 2.6 percentage points, a reduction of fertilizer input is equivalent to reducing nitrogen emissions by nearly 600,000 tons, saving 1.3 million tons of coal or 900,000 cubic meters of natural gas.
"The improvement of fertilizer and pesticide utilization rate is the result of a number of technological integration and polymerization of multiple factors." Zeng Yande said that in the past two years, China has accelerated the promotion of new products and focused on the promotion of crop-specific formula fertilizers, slow release fertilizers and bio-organic fertilizers ; Integrated promotion of new technologies, focusing on the promotion of new technologies such as formula fertilization, mechanical fertilization, fertilizer and sowing, water and fertilizer integration; accelerating alternative organic fertilizers and green alternative prevention and control; accelerating the development of specialized services and fostering a group of skilled , There is a new type of social service organization with equipment and scale, and the area under unified control and defense has been expanding continuously.
Although China's fertilizer, pesticide utilization continued to improve, but compared with developed countries such as Europe and the United States, there is still a small gap. At present, the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer for grain crops in the United States is about 50%, and the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer in European food crops is roughly 65%. The pesticide utilization rates of wheat, corn and other food crops in developed countries in Europe and the United States range from 50% to 60%. Why there is a big gap? Zeng Yande said that the planting system, China's land and other resources use intensity, some places in the south more than a year, Huang Huaihai area is a year two crops, only the north of the Great Wall is a year, and Europe, the Americas and other countries Mostly in one year, some countries also implement fallow rotation. In the aspect of output level, the situation of more people and less people in our country leads to the way that big water and big fertilizer promote production increase, which will inevitably bring a lot of input of fertilizers. As for farming methods , Europe and the United States and other countries have a high level of mechanization, deep plowing deep pine and straw returning more common, while in most parts of China only 15 cm to 20 cm of plow, poor water retention and fertilizer. The food crops in Europe and the United States are dominated by fertilizer and machinery. Fruits and vegetables are mostly integrated with water and fertilizer. However, some places in our country are still affected by the use of fertilizer or "shelling"; in respect of the quality of cultivated land, at present, China's contribution to basic fertility The rate is about 50% lower than the developed countries by 20 to 30 percentage points.
According to reports, although the rate of utilization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in China is somewhat different from that of foreign countries, the target of more than 40% utilization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides by 2020 will certainly be achieved on schedule. Zeng Yan De said the next step should be to promote integrated innovation, focusing on the promotion of fertilizer facilities, mechanical top dressing, fertilizer and sowing, water and fertilizer integration technology. Application of agricultural prevention and control, biological control, physical control and other green prevention and control technology, promote the integration of prevention and control and green prevention and control. Strengthen the promotion of new products and new equipment, focusing on the research and development of high-performance slow-release fertilizer, high efficiency and low toxicity low residue pesticides, biological fertilizers, bio-pesticides and other new products; actively promote the advanced fertilizer application machinery to accelerate the replacement of backward machinery. We will vigorously promote the innovation of the mechanism, speed up the cultivation of a batch of socialized service organizations with technical strength and strength, and carry out the service of unified management of the whole system and prevention and control.